Quantum Computing is a new type of computing architecture that will make our devices millions of times faster than they are today.
Classical computers process information in a binary format, called bits, which can represent either a 0 or 1. Quantum computers, in contrast, use logical units called quantum bits, or qubits.
Qubits can be any two level quantum system or a single photon.They can be put into a quantum state where they can simultaneously represent both 0 and 1. This is called as superposition.
For eg. Just 30 Qubits can simulate 2^30 or 1 billion possibilities in a split second.
What's more, while the bits in a classical computer all operate independently from one another, in a quantum computer, the status of one qubit effects the status of all the other qubits in the system,this property is called quantum entanglement.So they can all work together to achieve a solution.
In the case of Google, this calculation involved checking whether the output of an algorithm for generating random numbers was truly random.
The researchers were able to use a quantum computer to perform this complex mathematical calculation in three minutes and 20 seconds, according to the paper. They say it would have taken Summit 3—an IBM-built machine that is the world's most powerful commercially-available conventional computer—about 10,000 years to perform the same task.
Among the most anticipated uses of quantum computers is the ability to create new chemicals, like catalysts for producing nitrogen-based fertilizers or for use in cells in higher-powered batteries. Quantum computing could also be used to crack most commonly used forms of digital encryption. .
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